Javascript Regex cheatsheet 2021

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Javascript Regex Cheatsheet

A Regular Expression (RegEx) is a string of characters that defines a search pattern. Regex can save you hundreds of lines of code and can be used with Javascript or any programming language (and even CLI tools)

Basic of Regular Expression or Regex

In a RegEx, you always start and end the string with "/". It is your responsibility to write the code in between the slashes."/apple/" RegEx is the easiest way to match the term "apple". Due to RegEx's case-sensitive nature, this will not match "aPpLe" or "Apple".

Regex Example for matching Email Address
Regex Example for matching Email Address

A search for apple using the "/apple/i" keyword will match the words "apple" and "aPpLe". Use "/apple|nut/" RegEx to match both "apple" and "nut."

Isn't it simple, eh?

Regex in Javascript

In this lesson, we'll learn how to use RegEx in JS.

  • str.match(regex): Returns an array of matches. It turns out that there's a catch here. As an example, try saying "apple apple".match(/apple/) In the case of a match(/apple/), you would expect to get ["apple" and "apple"] but simple ['apple'] is returned. Add g flag to receive a full array with multiple matches.
  • regex.test(str): This method returns either true if the string is matched or false if not.
let regex = /javascript|programming/i; const str = "javascript is awesome programming language"; regex.test(str); // true str.match(regex); // ["javascript", index: 0, input: "javascript is awesome programming language"] regex = /javascript|programming/gi; str.match(regex); // ["javascript", "programming"]

Wildcard Period in Regex

Let's use the word 'hug' (/hug/) as an example of how we learned to statically match a word. But what if we want to match 'huh', 'hug,' and 'hum' all at once? It's the wildcard round! That is the correct response. /hu./ This will match all three-letter long words that begin with the letter 'hu.'

Matching string which starts or ends with particular character or word or line using Regex

To find a character or word at the beginning of a string use ^.

let regex = /^123/; regex.test("__123_123_"); // false - 123 is not exactly at the beginning! regex.test("123___123___"); // true

To search for a character or word at the end of string use $ like so

regex = /123$/; regex.test("__123__123_"); // false - 123 has to be at the end regex.test("__123"); // true

Matching character which occur one or more than one time

We can use + operator to match the occurance of a string one or more the one time

// With + let regex = /1+/g; "123".match(regex); //["1"] "1123".match(regex); //["11"] "11213".match(regex); //["11", "1"] "234".match(regex); //null //without + regex = /a/g; "abc".match(regex); //["1"] "aabc".match(regex); //["1","1"] "aabac".match(regex); //["1","1", "1"] "bbc".match(regex); //null

Matching character which occur zero or more

We can use * operator to match the occurance of a string zero or more .

let str = "111"; str.match(/1*/g); // ["111", ""] str.match(/1/g); // ["1", "1", "1"]

Optional Character

The ? operator makes a character or string optinal while mathcing regex pattern.

let regex = /1234?5/; // makes 'u' capital let american = "1235"; let british = "12345"; regex.test("1235"); // true regex.test("12345678"); // true regex.test("12365"); // false

Matching character at certain limit in Regex

What if you wish to match a set of characters that repeats X times, such as a set of 5 letters that spells out "a"? Let's get this party started, a{5} This would only match 'aaaaa', not 'aa' or "aaaaaaaaaa".

let str = "ama baalo maaaaamal aaaaaa"; console.log(str.match(/a{5}/g)); //prints ["aaaaa". "aaaaa"] //to match 'm' letter followed by 5 x 'a' console.log(str.match(/ma{5}/)); // prints ["maaaaa", indes: 10, ...] //which means we have a match at index 10

You learned how to match a specific amount of repeating letters, such as a{5} matching "aaah." But what if you want to match from one to three recurring characters rather than exactly five? Here's a{1,3}: it matches "a," "aa," and "aaa," but not "aaaa."

Posative and Negative Lookahead in Regex

This is one of the more esoteric aspects of regex. But let's try to understand:

  • x(?=y) - This expression will match all the occurence of "x" that if followed by "y", without making "y" part of the match.

  • x(?!y) - This expression will match all the occurence of "x" that is NOT followed by "y", without making "y" part of the match.

let str = "worldheyworldhello"; str.match(/world(?=hello)/); //["world", index: 8, input: "worldheyworldhello"] str.match(/world(?=hey)/); //["world", index: 0, input: "worldheyworldhello"] str.match(/world(?!hey)/); //["world", index: 8, input: "worldheyworldhello"]

Capture groups in Regex

We've all heard of the DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself) programming principle. Capture groups assist us in achieving this goal.The string to match is put between /(string)/

/(123)\1\1/g; //Here \1 will be evaluated as "123" so the regex expression will be: // /123123123/g

You can alse use multiple capture group as:

let regex = /(123+)(567+)\1\2/g; //Will be same as /1233567712335677/g

Comman shorthands

  • For matching only alphbate you can use /[a-z]/ or /[A-Z]/. Or you can also use /D/.

  • For matching only numeric you can use /[0-9]/. Alternatively you can also use /d/.

  • For matching a non-word character such as "!@#%^*&" you can use /\W/.

  • For matching alphanumeric character you can use /\w/.

Flags in Regex

Along with /regex/g in Javascript we have six flags which are used as needed. They are:

  • /regex/i: The match is now case-insensitive. There is no difference between the letters 'C' and 'c'.

  • /regex/s: Allow wildcard period . to match with newline character \n.

  • /regex/u : For Unicode Support.

  • /regex/y : Enable full Unicode support.

  • /regex/m: Multiline more; only affects the behavior of ^ and $

  • /regex/g: Only the first match will be returned if this flag is not set.

References

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